What is rpi in basketball? How To Calculate RPI and What it Means To Handicappers

What is rpi in basketball? The Rating Percentage Index (RPI) has been used by the NCAA men’s basketball committee since 1981, and officially by the women’s basketball committee since 1984, as supplemental data to help select at-large teams and seed all teams for the men’s and women’s NCAA basketball tournaments.

The NCAA did not make the RPI available to member institutions and to the public in-season until the 2005-06 season, when it began doing so on a weekly basis in a bare-bones fashion. Before then, the data were kept confidential within the committees.

Collegiate Basketball News duplicates the RPI that is generated by the NCAA to four decimal places using available formulas without input from the NCAA. The three component factors which make up the RPI are as follows:

Factor I is the team’s Division I winning percentage and is 25 percent of the RPI. Games against non-Division I opponents are not included in the normal RPI. For the men, beginning in 2004-05, and for the women, beginning in 2011-12, home wins are weighted 0.6, neutral wins 1.0, and road wins count 1.4, and road losses are 0.6, neutral losses 1.0, and home losses 1.4.

Factor II is the team’s opponents’ Division I winning percentage, or the team’s schedule strength, excluding results against the team in question. It is 50 percent of the RPI.

Factor III is the team’s opponents’ opponents’ Division I winning percentage, or the team’s opponents’ strength of schedule, excluding results against the team in question. Factor III is 25 percent of the RPI.

No longer in use is Factor IV, which was the bonus/penalty portion of the RPI. It was used in conjunction with the above three Factors and was called the Adjusted RPI. it was used for the men from 1993-94 through 2003-04 and for the women from 1993-94 through 2010-11.

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Factor IV first started with the “normal” RPI as derived by Factors I, II and III above, and bonus and penalty points were then awarded in two different categories. The first was based on the team’s non-conference schedule using the normal RPI ranking of the team’s opponents. Bonus and penalty points in the second category were based upon winning games against top 50 teams in the RPI, and on losing to teams ranked lower than 150 in the RPI.

Bonus and penalty points in the second category varied based upon the location of the game and were cumulative. A loss to a non-Division I team resulted in penalty points. The Adjusted RPI was first published in The RPI Report and The Women’s RPI Report during the 1998-99 season.

How was the NET rankings system created?

The NET rankings system was improved in the summer of 2018 after consultation with the Division I Men’s Basketball Committee, the National Association of Basketball Coaches, top basketball analytics experts and Google Cloud Professional Services.

Late-season games from the 2017-18 season, including from the NCAA tournament, were originally used as test sets to develop a ranking model that used machine learning techniques. The model was used to predict the outcome of games in test sets and it was optimized until it was as accurate as possible.

That model is the one used for the NET.

Is there any notable data not included in the NET?

Game date and game order were not included in the NET rankings so a team’s first game counts the same as its 30th.

With the changes announced in May 2020, the NET will no longer use winning percentage, adjusted winning percentage and scoring margin. The change was made after the committee consulted with Google Cloud Professional Services, which worked with the NCAA to develop the original NET.

“When we adopted the NET in 2018, we had reviewed several seasons worth of data and we insisted that we would continue to evaluate the metric,” said Dan Gavitt, the NCAA’s senior vice president of basketball. “We’ve been very satisfied with its performance thus far, but it became evident after two seasons of use that this change would be an improvement. While we will continue to monitor the metric, I don’t anticipate any additional adjustments for several years.

We believe this change will result in more precision throughout the season and will be easier for our membership and the public to understand.”

The updated NET is consistent with the women’s basketball NET, which was revealed after the Division I Women’s Basketball Committee worked with a team from Google Cloud to evaluate women’s basketball statistical data for a 10-year period.

In addition, the overall and non-conference strength of schedule has been modernized to reflect a truer measure for how hard it is to defeat opponents. The strength of schedule is based on rating every game on a team’s schedule for how hard it would be for an NCAA tournament-caliber team to win. It considers opponent strength and site of each game, assigning each game a difficulty score. Aggregating these across all games results in an overall expected win percentage versus a team’s schedule, which can be ranked to get a better measure of the strength of schedule.

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How are the NET rankings used?

Since the NET rankings serve as the primary sorting tool for Division I men’s basketball, they play an important role in establishing a team’s resume. The men’s and women’s basketball NET rankings and team sheets will be provided publicly on a daily basis on NCAA.com and NCAA.org starting in December.

College basketball’s NET rankings, explained

The 2023-24 men’s basketball season marks the sixth season of the NCAA Evaluation Tool (NET) rankings, which replaced the RPI prior to the 2018-19 season as the primary sorting tool for evaluating teams. In May 2020, the NCAA announced there will be changes made to the NCAA Evaluation Tool to increase accuracy and simplify it by reducing a five-component metric to just two.

The remaining factors include the Team Value Index (TVI), which is a result-based feature that rewards teams for beating quality opponents, particularly away from home, as well as an adjusted net efficiency rating.

The adjusted efficiency is a team’s net efficiency, adjusted for strength of opponent and location (home/away/neutral) across all games played. For example, a given efficiency value (net points per 100 possessions) against stronger opposition rates higher than the same efficiency against lesser opponents and having a certain efficiency on the road rates higher than the same efficiency at home.

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